Willoughby's Minute

ISBN 9780199068258
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Willoughby’s Minute describes events that surround the 1842 Treaty of Nownahar. Its focus is on how the indigenous sovereign Mir Ali Morad committed a fraud when he altered the treaty. Authored by John Pollard Willoughby, a career East India Company civil servant and Bombay Council Board member, the Minute provides an alternative genealogy to contextualize British debates about Sindh’s annexation. This genealogy does not focus on Britain’s aggressive anti-Russian imperial policy in Afghanistan (i.e., the Great Game). Instead, it demonstrates how a local treaty—that did not involve the British directly—contextualizes Sindh’s annexation and the institutional relationship between civil and military authority within the East India Company.